The Australian city becomes the carrier's 85th destination in its route network, with flights to Sydney expected to be launched by Qatar Airways next year.
Three flights per week operate to Melbourne using a brand new Boeing 777-200LR aircraft on Sundays, Wednesdays and Fridays.
Akbar Al Baker, Qatar Airways' chief executive officer, explained that the airline had been "eagerly planning" its Australian routes for a number of years.
"Qatar Airways would like to extend its appreciation and thanks to the Australian authorities that have worked tirelessly to pave the way for Qatar Airways to begin its operations," he commented.
The launch of flights to Melbourne comes at a busy time for the airline. Ahead of the festive season, Qatar Airways has also launched flights to Houston and Amritsar so far this year.
It was announced by the carrier last month that it will increase its flights to Stockholm from Doha to a daily service from next March.
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